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Différentes ablations laser pulsées des matériaux cibles solides ont montré un grand potentiel dans les domaines du microtraitement pointeur laser 10000mw, de la nanotechnologie et de la fabrication de dispositifs. Pour développer la qualité et la quantité de micro et nanomachinages, l'ablation laser de matériaux a été réalisée dans différents environnements tels que le vide, l'air, les gaz et les liquides pour différentes applications telles que la soudure, le placage, la découpe, le nettoyage et génération de nanoparticules.

Bien que certains paramètres du faisceau laser tels que la fluence laser, la longueur d'onde et la durée des impulsions soient importants pour contrôler le traitement du matériau, l'environnement d'ablation est également un facteur important dans l'interaction laser-matériau. Par exemple, Zhu et al. ont conclu que le taux d'ablation d'un matériau cible de Si est grandement amélioré en utilisant un régime de confinement de l'eau (WCR) à une fluence laser 3000mw allant de 2,0 à 5,0 J / cm2. Ils ont également constaté que dans l'eau, la première amplitude crête-à-crête des ondes acoustiques est supérieure d'environ 25% à celle de l'environnement ambiant.

Besner et al. utilisé un laser femtoseconde pour l'ablation dans le vide, l'air et l'eau pour les modifications de surface; ils ont montré que les valeurs de seuil des matériaux cibles Si et Au étaient presque identiques dans les trois environnements. Les valeurs de Si dans le régime d'irradiation à une et plusieurs impulsions étaient de 0,4 et 0,2 J / cm2; pour Au, leurs valeurs étaient respectivement de 0,9 et 0,3 J / cm2. Patel et al. a montré que le processus d'ablation au pointeur laser 50000mw est plus efficace dans l'eau que dans l'air, ce qui dépend des propriétés thermiques des matériaux. Il a également été conclu que la production d'ablation au laser dans l'eau est plus adaptée à la production de nanoparticules uniformes et à la production de masse de nanoparticules. En plus des environnements mentionnés ci-dessus pour l'ablation au laser, Lindley et al.

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a étudié le panache d'ablation laser d'un matériau cible en aluminium dans un environnement de plasma, ainsi que dans un gaz sous vide et de l'argon. Il a été conclu dans cette étude que les panaches d'ablation au laser puissant 30000mw dans le plasma se dilatent et se dissipent légèrement plus rapidement que dans le gaz et le vide. Iqbal et al. a montré les effets de la fluence laser et des environnements d'ablation (vide et hydrogène) sur la micro et nano-structure d'un matériau cible Ge. Il a été montré dans leur étude que la formation et la croissance de structures de surface périodiques induites par laser (LIPSS), de cônes et de micro-bosses dépendaient fortement de la fluence laser et des conditions environnementales. Par conséquent, la croissance, la taille et la forme de ces structures dépend fortement de la fluence laser.

Dans une comparaison critique de l'ablation laser dans différents environnements tels que le vide, l'air ambiant, différents environnements liquides et différents gaz de fond est présenté. Le milieu optimal et les paramètres du faisceau laser pour l'ablation laser seront désignés.

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